Signed "Ellen Neel, Not finished on her death"
Indigenous artwork on the Pacific Northwest Coast often incorporates figures and animals that are related to crest symbols. Crests have been passed down through families and have varying meanings depending on the context and association with a nation, clan, or family. The figures depicted in contemporary Northwest Coast Indigenous artwork also have varying meanings but there are some common characteristics from a range of sources, including oral histories and artist descriptions.
Thunderbird is not a primary crest figure amongst Northern Nations, instead being associated with Southern nations like the Nuu-chah-nulth, Salish, and Kwakwaka’wakw. Some oral traditions suggest that Thunderbird preys on Killer Whales and lives in the peaks of the coastal mountains. Others recount that this supernatural figure creates the boom of thunder as he flaps his wings in flight and is said to shoot lightning snakes from his eyes. It is sometimes suggested to epitomize power and strength. Not to be confused with Eagle, Thunderbird is identified by an exaggerated crooked beak and prominent horns. Sometimes artists will depict Thunderbird with teeth, lightning motifs, or alongside Killer Whale.
Bear is one of the most prevalent figures in Northwest Coast art and oral tradition. Bear is often considered to be a close relation to humankind and a link between the human and non-human realms due to physical characteristics such as appearance and expression, as well as anthropomorphic behaviours like nurturing young and standing on hind legs. Associated with strength and fierceness, Bears have been depicted as guardians and protectors of human heroes. Bear is identified by a wide mouth with prominent teeth, a short round snout with large nostrils, and clawed feet.